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Jones, Prudence, and Nigel Pennick.  A History of Pagan Europe.  New York: Barnes & Noble,

1995.

 

A side of history that has remained silent for many years is finally revealed in Prudence Jones and Nigel Pennick’s work A History of Pagan Europe.  Through exploring the tomes of history, lore, and archaeology, the authors have put together an impeccable overview of the various ancient people of Europe.  In doing so, they exhibit not only how Europe became Europe, but how modern Paganism came to be.  A History of Pagan Europe is an excellent source for Pagan students.  What I found most fascinating were the similarities shared by the various cultures discussed.

Many people of European descent know very little about their ancestors.  The authors begin their work by stating that most people “are more familiar with native traditions from outside Europe than with their own spiritual heritage” (1).  This is sad, particularly so because many European descendants vehemently distance themselves from Paganism even though it has always been there and continues to exist, as Jones and Pennick argue, within our modern society, intertwined in some of our most seemingly secular institutions (1) such as democracy the celebration of Christmas.  The authors set out to debunk the misconceptions about Paganism held by society and show that we really aren’t so different from our ancestors.

The authors attempt to define what Paganism actually is.  I’ve found that it’s difficult to do so in this modern age because so many people, in particular Pagans themselves, refuse to be defined.  I feel that Jones and Pennick come to a satisfying conclusion.  If Paganism is ever to become unified (even though, again, some modern Pagans would argue against this notion), we have to unite under a name and group definition.  The authors first describe how people have defined Pagans in the past.  From country bumpkins to “non-combatants” (as opposed to the “soldiers of Christ”), the word “Pagan” has had a more or less pejorative meaning for the past few hundred years (1).  Jones and Pennick then look at the modern, spiritual definition and conclude that Pagan religions, past and present, share some common traits: polytheism (or some form of worshiping more than one deity), the view of nature as a theophany, and the recognition of Goddesses as well as Gods.  While some Pagans will argue with this, I feel that it covers many of our past and present traditions.  In my opinion, the authors do Paganism at large a service by providing a positive and academic definition.

We then delve into the history of the Greeks and the Eastern Mediterranean, the Romans and the Western Mediterranean, the Celts, the Germanic people, the Baltic people, and the Slavic people.  I couldn’t help but notice the similarities between these different cultures.  For instance, sacred trees kept revealing themselves in each culture.  The authors explain that in Greece “[m]any sanctuaries in later Greek culture centered on a sacred tree…”(6).  Later they explain that “[n]o temple was dedicated unless there was a holy tree associated with it” (20).  The Celts were said to worship in groves of trees (81) and some Germanic tribes also met in such places (116).  The Baltic people had celebrations revolving around ritualized trees that Pennick and Jones argue represented the “axis of the Earth’s rotation” (174).  In Lithuania, there were also sacred groves that were not to be cut  (176).  Everyone seems to have had a sense of the importance of the forest.  I was surprised, however, that the authors did not discuss the world tree of Norse tradition.

Nature was repeatedly venerated in some way from culture to culture. Sacred springs or wells played central roles to many of the old religions.  Slavic Pagans had rituals in which ceremonial dancers “undertook a nine-day ceremony [in which they] visited nine boundary-points, filled a ceremonial vessel with water from nine springs, and prayed to their patron goddess Irondeasa” (190).  The Celtic tribes felt that springs were sacred places as well.  There were springs at Bath associated with the Goddess Sul and “[s]sometimes these springs were thought to cure eye diseases, bringing the light of the Sun to the eye of the sufferer” (88).  In Ireland, “well-worship continues in a modern form, sometimes as a local folk-observance but more often by adoption into Christianity in the form of ‘well-dressing’” in which the well is decorated by the community and then blessed by a local priest (83-84).  The Greeks also recognized sacred springs (10).  The various cultures covered also had strong beliefs associated with fire and/or solar powers, nature spirits, agricultural festivals, and honoring the Earth.  It was interesting to see that, although the cultures venerated nature, they also exploited it. Unlike our modern world, however, our ancestors were very aware of the balance and the need to give back to nature and the Gods.

The dead and the Otherworld were also a common theme.  In Rome, “the remains of the dead were elaborately honored and they were housed in elaborate necropolises…” (26).  Obviously, there existed a concern with the afterlife. We know from Celtic lore that there were times of the year when the dead and other beings of the Otherworld could commune with the world of the living (90).  We know of some Germanic funeral traditions, some from direct observation.  While we may not know the meaning behind the traditions, it is, again, obvious that the dead were being taken care of and that they seem to have been sent into the Otherworld fully prepared for renewed life (138).  In addition, Pennick and Jones point out that the Germans were a bit different from other European Pagans in that they actually felt that their tribal ancestors were Gods (116).  In my opinion, this adds a whole new layer of sacredness to ancestor worship.

There were so many common themes that it would take pages and pages to discuss them all.  Reading about the various similarities helped to reinforce the customs of Ár nDraíocht Féin.   The creation of our altars and what goes on them makes more sense when viewed as a continuation of our ancestral religious traditions.  The tree represents the sacred tree that reveals itself again and again throughout the pages of the book.  The well represents the many sacred springs.  The cauldron represents the sacred fire.  We give offerings to the nature spirits because, like our ancestors, we believe that we need to give back to nature in thanks for what it gives us.  We honor our ancestors like our forefathers and mothers did.  We set up temples and worship in or around sacred trees.  Having read A History of Pagan Europe, I’m filled with a more academic understanding for all that we do in our tradition and it fills me with pride. It almost seems that through practicing as my ancestors did I am honoring them.

Reading the book hasn’t really changed how I practice my religion.  I’ve been recognizing the importance of the sacred tree, well, and fire for awhile now, and have been observing the other customs of ADF because they felt right. Reading about the historical background of everything only reinforces my spiritual practices and gives me a better understanding for other cultures that I may otherwise have never read about.  As someone who has clergy aspirations, it is useful to know that many of our practices are universal throughout Europe.  If I was required to do a Norse ritual, for instance, I wouldn’t feel too out of place after doing the appropriate amount of research on the pantheon.

The book ends by discussing how Paganism has been reestablishing itself, first through the Renaissance, and finally through the various modern movements.  The authors briefly touch on Druidry and Ásatrú, however I felt that they were more favorable of Wicca.  While Ásatrú has more of an honorable mention, Druidry is made to look like a fantasy-based fraternity (211).  Some of the first modern Druids do have Masonic roots, but the authors have failed to take note of other viable Celtic-inspired traditions that do more research and rely less on romantic fancy.  Perhaps it’s because the book was written before Ár nDraíocht Féin and Celtic Reconstructionism were as known as they are now. Meanwhile, Wicca is praised as the “kind of Paganism [that] looks ahead, offering a new philosophy, more strongly than it looks to its roots in the past” (220).  While I’ll never condemn Wicca, I do think that the authors have ignored the fact that many groups, including Ásatrú groups, take on the Reconstructionist principal that religions should be updated for our modern world while holding onto those traditions that are still applicable.  Meanwhile, many branches of Wicca have become just as fantasy-driven as the old Druidic orders.  I believe that having an understanding of history is very important, especially where religion is concerned.

A History of Pagan Europe should be read by every Pagan and history student alike.  Modern Pagans should have a firm understanding of where their traditions have evolved from.  Even Pagans who do not have European ancestry should give the book a try, especially if they live in a Euro-centric country like America or Canada. It can give a lot of perspective on our culture, especially where holidays and our calendar are concerned. Meanwhile, history students should appreciate the other side of the story and see the many examples of how Paganism was not necessarily stamped out, but rather absorbed into our modern world.

 

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I finally got around to seeing the film version of Percy Jackson and the Olympians: The Lightning Thief.  I really enjoyed the book.  In fact, the whole series was enjoyable to the point where I couldn’t put it down, each book successively more enjoyable than the last.  I finished all of the books in about a month.  I loved the characters, and the author, Rick Riordan,  obviously knew his mythology.  If I ever have children, I will share these books with them as they are great introductions to polytheism.

The film version, directed by Chris Columbus (the same director for some Harry Potter films), was kind of a let-down in that it was so different.  Sure the basic themes were there:

1) A coming of age story about a kid who discovers he’s the son of Poseidon.
2) Absent parents often leave children feeling insecure.
3) The Gods are still around and influencing our culture.

However, the story was really different.  For starters, simple yet important plot elements were never discussed.  An unfamiliar audience may not realize that Percy’s sword/pen is supposed to return to his pocket no matter what.  It was never explained *why* Olympus was in NY City rather than Greece.  Clarrise wasn’t there at all.  Neither was Dionysus!   Even Grover’s life goal, something incredibly important to later books, was left out.

Grover seemed like a vastly different character.  He was my favorite in the books.  He was insecure, always hungry, and was very concerned with the environment.  He was funny because he was geeky and adorably awkward (for a Satyr).  In the movie he was reduced to the wise-cracking side-kick who occasionally “maaa-ed” and ate a can.  Although Grover had an eye for the nymphs in the books, he didn’t act like a playboy.  I also can’t imagine Grover dancing on state to Lady Gaga’s “Poker Face.”

Which brings me to the major plot change.  Ares doesn’t show up *at all*.  The half-bloods don’t even go on an official quest given by the oracle – they run away.  Chronos has nothing to do with it.  The Titans are mentioned ever-so-briefly in a museum but, otherwise, everything gets blamed on poor old Hades.  Now, in the books, Hades isn’t exactly the nicest guy, and he does desire a paradigm shift, but he wasn’t made to look like the Christian Satan and he didn’t want a war.  In the movie, Hades first appears looking like a molten Chernabog from Disney’s “Fantasia.”  WTF?!  Hades is *never* described like that in the novels let alone Greek mythology.  He later appears in a more human form – albeit dressed like some sort of punk rocker (lol).  In the movie, Persephone was with Hades.  In fact, they changed the entire plot so that the kids were looking for “Persephone’s pearls” spread all over the US, left for would-be boyfriends to find as a gateway into the Underworld.  First of all, this takes place in the spring and summer – Perseophne isn’t supposed to be in Hades then!  The pearl thing?!  Where did they pull that from?!  Why couldn’t they have stuck with the original plot of the book?!  Changes like that make me so angry.

Plot aside, it was fun to see the characters brought to life.  The satyrs and centaurs looked amazing.  But there were so many things missing…  I would have liked to see Clarrise.  She’s an interesting character, especially later in the series.  Annabeth (in the movie) seems to be a combination of her book counterpart and Clarrise, the warlike daughter of Ares.  I was *really* looking forward to seeing Dionysus only to be disappointed.  He’s so grumpy and (to me) lovable in the books.  I was let down by his absence as camp director.

If you haven’t read the books, you may still enjoy the movies (plot holes aside).  The children in the audience definitely liked it.  My husband heard one exclaim “This is the best movie ever!”  Maybe s/he doesn’t get out much?   It was entertaining but, if you’re really curious about Percy Jackson, I recommend the books.

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A month or so ago, an upcoming movie was brought to my attention – “Percy Jackson and the Olympians: The Lightning Thief.” The plot sounded interesting and I’m a sucker for anything involving mythology. Although I consider myself a liberal Celtic Reconstructionist and NeoDruid, Greek mythology will always have a special place in my heart. It was what I was first exposed to. Indeed, my favorite Saturday Morning Cartoon was a series of animated Greek myths!

When I found out that the movie was based on a book I decided to find it and read it. I’m a bit out of touch with juvenile fiction. As an English major I was far too busy reading old classics to have time to read anything else! When I had free time to read what I wanted, I found myself reading history and NeoPagan studies. As a college grad with some time on my hands, I decided to give it a try and I’m glad I did.

The first book, which shares the movie title, follows the adventures of Percy Jackson, the son of Poseidon, and his friends as they race to recover Zeus’ stolen thunder bolt to its rightful owner in order to prevent a massive war. The book, in my opinion, is Harry Potter meets American Gods. There is a world of mortals and a world of Gods, monsters, and Godlings or half-Gods. This classification is the witch/wizard and muggle world of Harry Potter, I suppose. The Godlings even have a special place to go in the summer called “Camp Half-Blood” where they learn to be better heros (because that’s what people with divine parents naturally become!). It reminds me of Gaiman’s wonderful book because the Gods are very much alive, interacting with the mortal world, and have modern touches. Poseidon, for instance, wears a beach shirt and his throne looks like a fisherman’s chair. Whimsical touches like that really make the book enjoyable.

The colloquial first-person narration was, at times, annoying, but that could stem from the fact that I generally don’t read juvenile fiction. I did get used to it but there were times when it was a bit jarring. The story was fun but some elements were predictable (or didn’t add up to the mythology I studied in college – but most of it was really well done). That said, I can’t wait to read the next one! It was a relaxing and enjoyable read. I can definitely see myself reading it to any children I have.

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